Peace and Content



Agrippina A. Abrikosova

 

Interdistrict newspaper of Southeast Administrative District,
Towns of Kapotnya, Lyublino, Mar’ino

Peace and Content
Issue № 9 (09) September 2001

The article: Agrippina, a Mother - Heroine
Historical archives.

Considerable outline in a history of the Moscow charity has left by Agrippina Alexandrovna Abrikosova (1833-1901). In 1902, under her spiritual will, the Moscow municipal Duma accepted 100 thousand roubles to build a free-of-charge 28 bed maternity hospital in Moscow. It is not surprising, that the money invested by Abrikosova was in obstetrical establishment, because she herself from the age of 16 till 45 had given birth to twenty-two children, from who five have died in their childhood.

The maternity hospital with on 51 beds, named after A.A. Abrikosova, was constructed in 1905 under a project of architect A.I. Ivanov  and blessed on May 1906. Construction was estimated at 206,018 rubles (the shortage of money were replaced from the city’s budget). Today, it is a city maternity hospital № 6, located at the address: 2nd Miusskaya Street, building 1/10, which is one of the oldest medical institutions in Moscow and will celebrate the centenary in five years. As much as hundred thousand Muscovites were born in its benevolent walls...

Agrippina (Аgrafena) Alexandrovna Abrikosova was born in the family of well-known Moscow manufacturer, Alexandr Borisovich Musatov, who was a merchant of 2nd guild and was hereditary honorable citizen (1840). Musatov was the owner of two factories: cosmetics and tobacco (both are founded in 1825). The tobacco factory was the largest in Moscow in 1840th and occupied a leading position up to 1880th years.
Agrippina Alexandrovna was a native Muscovite. Her grandfather, Suzdal merchant Boris Nikitich Musatov, moved to Moscow in 1780 and continued here in the commercial business: as it was told in the fairy tale, “Merchant of 3rd guild, who amends commissions of different people”.
The senior step-sister of Agrippina Alexandrovna (from another marriage of her father) was Glafira Popova - the wife of a tea dealer, the commerce counselor and one of the Moscow’s riches, K.A. Popov. The Popov’s did not have children, and the nephews of Abrikosov, after the death of the relatives, inherited the tea-trading company “The Brothers K. and S. Popovs “.

The history of Agrippina Alexandrovna’s marriage is very interesting. She married in 1849, at that time it was accepted to get acquainted with brides through matchmakers. Under the family legend, her future groom has asked the familiar matchmaker to find him the bride with dowry, because the confectionery factory founded in 1804 by his father and uncle was absolutely ruined in 1838. Abrikosov family has passed from merchants in petty bourgeois, and only Alexey Ivanovich (1824 -1904) has not a lose heart and has decided to renew the family business. Without the capital to conduct the business in any way was impossible. The bride with dowry also was necessary for him for this purpose.

Behind 16-years old Grusha Musatova, was a dowry in the sum of 5 thousand rubles, and this was big money for Alexey Ivanovich. The groom was 8 years senior than bride. Though old man Musatov considered, that Abrikosov is not fit for his daughter – a daughter of the manufacturer, but as writes in the family chronicler, “Has accepted his offer and sensed and felt those opportunities, which Alexey Ivanovich has”
And it is indeed; Alexey Ivanovich Abrikosov’s factory became the Russia’s largest leader in the confectionery industry.
In 1879, for successes in the enterprise field, A. I. Abrikosov received the rank of commerce counselor. He headed a family factory-trading Joint-stock company to which belonged two confectionery factories: in Moscow (the largest in Russia) and in Simferopol; and from beginning of XX-th century also belonged the cake workshop and a bakery on Tverskaya street; and five stores in Moscow. Simultaneously Abrikosov was one of the directors of Company of tea trade and warehouses “ The Brothers K. and S. Popovs “.
Authority of Abrikosov in commercial circles of Moscow was so high, that during 22 years (in 1880 - 1902) he was selected as the Chairman of the Council of the Moscow Registry Bank. Alexey Ivanovich gave a lot of attention to public service, for it he received the rank of Counselor of State, and then bona fide Counselor of State, thus becoming, a nobleman.

The graduate of Practical Academy of Commercial Sciences, Abrikosov was its Chairman of Trustee Council in 1876 - 1897.  Alexey Ivanovich more than once made donations for the benefit of Practical Academy. In 1866 he brought 300 roubles, in 1885 - 2129 roubles “on updating of studies commodity, physical and mechanical. During the fund raising, which has been carried out under the initiative of the City Major N.A. Alexeyev, in 1889, A. I. Abrikosov has donated 1000 roubles on improvement of psychiatric hospitals.

Alexey Ivanovich was a pious person. Long years he served as a Church -Warden of Uspenskiy Cathedral of Saint Virgin in Pokrovka, and these duties meant significant personal deposits on the maintenance of the temple. He was also a contributor to the Practical Academy church. In 1899, Abrikosov and his wife Agrippina Alexandrovna were handed as gift to Academy’s church the marriage wreaths “made from pure gold, by stamping works of factory I. P. Khlebnikov…. with images, written picturesque enamel on gold, with a talus of brilliants, with diamond crosses, with value of 6000 rubles”. These precious wreaths are brought to Abrikosov couple by their sons, daughters, sons – in – law and daughters – in – law on the day of their Golden wedding Anniversary on April 24, 1899.

Agrippina Alexandrovna was a deeply believing person. One of the grandsons recollected that she has told him: “Kolya, go more often to church, pray to God, and God will send to you riches as He sends to us with grandfather”. It is necessary to notice that in the Uspenskiy Cathedral in Pokrovka, Abrikosova held on with her own means to an almshouse for old women, who cleaned the church.

Abrikosov’s children appreciated and respected their parents, who tried to give them good education and outstripped in this question many representatives of merchant elite. One of descendants of Alexey Ivanovich has precisely told about it: “If imagine that environment from which Alexey Ivanovich was originated, that entering by his oldest son the university was amazing event, which broke all traditions of merchants life at that time... “.
Having received initial domestic education, Abrikosov’s children maintained examinations in prestigious city schools where their studies continued. All daughters of Alexey Ivanovich and Agrippina Alexandrovna Abrikosov’s (data of 1870 - to 1880) received education in "German" schools at Peter and Paul’s Lutheran church (on Starosadskiy Lane, near Pokrovka).
The merchant’s environment generated strong, strong-willed characters, and the money allowed to build life, not looking back on the standard norms.

Daughter of Alexey Ivanovich and Agrippina Alexandrovna, Agrafena Abrikosova Jr. became one of known in Europe Russian woman – doctor.
Life of Agrafena Abrikosova Jr. (Granya), given in marriage to landowner Tyuryukov, first developed tragically. Married without love, at the request of parents, Granya was taken away to the husband’s estate, where she found out that he has another family. Granya was suffered a lot, until brother Nikolay (who was studying in the Moscow University) secretly took her away from there. The loving brother has managed to recognize the intellectual abilities of his sister and provided her with means for study in the beginning in Bestuzhev Courses in St. Petersburg, and then in Dresden, where the girl was studying mathematics at the best professors. We shall be reminded, that all of this happened in the first half of 1880th.
Herewith brother edified the sister, that “in Russia for females to work the ways and paths are narrow, as well as everywhere”. His words have conceived the action: Agrafena Jr. has entered the medical faculty in Paris where she was only woman among students. Abrikosova became a student of well-known French doctor Sharko and has defended the dissertation on a degree of the doctor in neuropathology. She had good practice in France. Private life of her, though, was not smooth: she has had two daughters from known physiologist Sharl Rishe, who still had first family, where six children grew.

Agrippina Alexandrovna never could reconcile to this "abnormal" marriage of the daughter, however she felt also fault that private life of Granya has developed so. After unhappy first marriage of oldest daughter, Agrippina Alexandrovna did not use help of matchmakers anymore, marrying daughters (she had them ten). The others got married without any help of matchmakers and only being in love.

It is necessary to tell about one of the grandsons of A.A. Abrikosova, who became the outstanding doctor, the Academician, who began his medical practice as a physician in the city maternity hospital, which was built on money of his grandmother
And in conclusion. After nationalization in 1919, the Abrikosovs Company was transformed into the Moscow confectionery factory named after Babayev, high quality of its production is well known already more than 150 years, due to the traditions incorporated by the Abrikosovs family.

G. Ulyanova, Ph.D in Historical Science.

 

 

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